- Publications & Research
- Publications Database
- Publication #18
Global Rare Earth In-Use Stocks in NdFeB Permanent Magnets
- Global Rare Earth In-Use Stocks in NdFeB Permanent Magnets
- Xiaoyue Du
- T. E. Graedel
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Volume 15, Issue 6, Pages 836-843
- The rare earth elements are indispensible in modern technology, especially in the applications of permanent magnets. Very little quantitative information is available on rare earth elements used in permanent magnets, however. This study looks back to 1983, when neodymium‐iron‐boron (NdFeB) permanent magnets were first manufactured, and reaches to 2007, when the market of permanent magnets was well developed. We draw on the historical data on permanent magnets from China, Japan, the United States, and Europe to provide the first estimates of global in‐use stocks for four rare earth elements—praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), terbium (Tb), and dysprosium (Dy)—in NdFeB permanent magnets. In‐use stocks amount to 62.6 gigagrams (Gg) Nd, 15.7 Gg Pr, 15.7 Gg Dy, and 3.1 Gg Tb; these stocks, if efficiently recycled, could provide a valuable supplement to geological stocks as they are almost four times the 2007 annual extraction rate of the individual elements.
- More Information
Incorrect or incomplete information? Click here to report this.
This website provides meta data on papers and other publications, with links
to the original publications. These papers may be copyrighted or otherwise
protected by the publishing journal or author. Some journals provide open
access to their publications. When possible we will try to include abstracts
and more details for open access publications. For more details, follow the
link to the original document and/or contact the publisher/author.